These enormous treasure junks were commanded by the great admiral, Zheng He. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. These expeditions traveled along the Indian Ocean trade routes as far as Arabia and the coast of East Africa, but in 1433, the government suddenly called them off. 17 Jan 2021. Zheng He's Travel Journal: Blog Bibliography Top Moments Seventh Voyage. The ruler of Mogadishu was responsive and did send an embassy to Yongle, and even distant Zanzibar was reached by Zheng He’s fleet. Between 1405 and 1433, Ming China sent out seven gigantic naval expeditions under the command of Zheng He the great eunuch admiral. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Zheng He is the first attested Chinese to visit the Swahili coast. The emperor even went so far as to ban the construction of any ocean-going ships and prohibit those that existed from being used for voyages beyond Chinese coastal waters. 28,000 … The grand project resulted in seven far-reaching ocean voyages to the coastal territories and islands in and around the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and beyond. Voyages five, six, and seven (1417, 1421, and 1431 CE) reached even further afield, landing at Mogadishu, Malindi, and Mombassa, all on the coast of East Africa. There was space, too, for a huge number of personnel: estimates range from 20,000 up to 32,000 expedition members on the first voyage. Sailing down the coast of Arabia, he then went on to Aden and up the Red Sea to Jeddah, from where a party travelled to Mecca. "THE MING VOYAGES OF CHENG HO (ZHENG HE), 1371-1433. The Seven Voyages of Zheng Heby Vmenkov (CC BY). The young Ma Sanbao (later Ma He), as he was then known, was among the boys who were captured, castrated, and sent into the army as orderlies. But while his name may be … By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. His travels may not have brought much success in terms of new trade or lasting tribute to the imperial court but the knowledge, ideas, and exotic goods he brought back home - from jewels to giraffes - created an interest in foreign countries and a realisation of their wealth which contributed to China’s increased role in world trade in later centuries. In fact, Menzies says Columbus used a copy of Zheng He's map to plot his own voyage. In any case, the original aim of the voyages - to secure foreign tribute - was largely unsuccessful outside of Southeast Asia. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Zheng He is renowned today as a great explorer, honoured by both Chinese and Muslims throughout South East Asia. The second voyage on its return in 1408 CE successfully resolved a local dispute on Java. Wherever he landed, Zheng He led a delegation to the local ruler to whom he presented messages of goodwill and China’s peaceful intentions towards them. Zheng He's Pilgrimage to Mecca The holy city of Mecca, in present-day Saudi Arabia, was the birthplace of the prophet Mohammed, the founder of Islam. "The Seven Voyages of Zheng He." More secure on his imperial throne, and having grabbed it in the first place after a three-year civil war, Yongle perhaps sought some international legitimacy for his position as emperor. There is a surviving painted silk scroll from the period showing a giraffe given to the emperor by King Saif Al-Din Hamzah Shah of Bengal. Another possible motive, at least for the earlier voyages to Southeast Asia, may have been to discover the whereabouts of the deposed emperor Jianwen (r. 1398-1402) and so ensure he did not stir up a rebellion to take back his throne from his usurper Yongle. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. "The Western Ocean" refers to the Asianand Africanplaces Zheng He explored, including: Admiral Zheng He was commissioned to command the treasure fleet for the expeditions. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The most grandiose claims for Zheng He's 1405 fleet are entirely based on a calculation derived from an account written three centuries later and were accepted as fact by one modern writer but rejected by most naval experts: Put simply, many foreign states, although interested in the trading possibilities, did not quite agree that China, the self-styled Middle Kingdom, was the centre of the world; a view confirmed by the opening up of the New World at the other end of the same century that Zheng He had begun his voyages. The scale of the fleets involved has also led some scholars to suggest the expeditions were rather more interested in some form of colonialism than mere diplomacy and trade, but this view is not widely held. Between 1405 and 1433 CE Zheng He commanded huge fleets loaded with trade goods and high-value gifts to such far-flung places as Hormuz in the Persian Gulf and Mogadishu in East Africa. by National Maritime Museum, Greenwich (CC BY-NC-ND). These voyages traveled through the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and along the east coast of Africa. The tribute, usually far less valuable than the goods which the emperors gave out, had always been a badge of approval to the Chinese, indicative that their emperor was indeed the Son of Heaven and the most powerful ruler on earth. Author of. Large ships, overseas travel, contact with most foreigners. Europe, India, and Africa. Zheng He was appointed garrison commander in Nanjing, with the task of disbanding his troops. Traditionally, Tribute from abroad had confirmed the Chinese vanity that their own culture was superior to all others. Wiki User Answered . Top Answer. Zheng He’s fourth voyage in 1413 CE saw him sail to India again, once more pushing on around the southern tip of the subcontinent and visiting again Cochin and Calicut on the west coast. Submitted by Mark Cartwright, published on 07 February 2019 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. He visited the states of Southeast Asia, the coast of India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa. 2009-09-11 03:55:13. That would place Zheng He’s efforts some 70 years ahead of Columbus. His tomb was erected in Nanjing, China, where it stands today. Get an answer to your question “About how many miles did Zheng He travel?A. Many rulers took up the offer immediately and delegates were accommodated on Zheng He’s ships to be eventually taken to China on the return voyage. During the next 30 years (till 1445 CE), he was in command of the world’s largest fleet, funded by the Ming emperor, sailed to the east coast of Africa into the Persian Gulf. Zheng He did not travel looking to conquer and kill but instead to show the might and wealth of the Ming Empire. Written in the Ruins: Cape Breton Island’s Second Pre-Columbian Chinese... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, Bennet Peterson, B. Yongle would dispatch many diplomatic missions across land routes to such places as Samarkand and Tibet but the man selected to lead the emperor’s most important maritime forays into foreign diplomacy was Zheng He. Books The traditional presentation of tribute to Chinese emperors by other, smaller states in Southeast Asia was given to prevent invasion or achieve a theoretical promise of protection in the case of invasion by a third party or because diplomatic missions giving that tribute were permitted to conduct trade while in China. Answer: Zheng He traveled by ship. Cartwright, M. (2019, February 07). The emperor’s purpose for this expedition seems to have been to obtain recognition and gifts from other rulers. Mecca is the most sacred site in the Muslim world. Aiming to spread the word of the Chinese emperor's might and open Chinese trade to new markets, Zheng He traveled as far as the east coast of Africa. Zheng He organized this expedition but did not actually lead it in person. Zheng He was from a Hui (Chinese Muslim) family. Zheng He (or Ma Sanbao) (1371-1433 AD) was a court eunuch, marine explorer and fleet admiral, born into an adventurous Muslim family in Kunyang of Yunnan Province. Last modified February 07, 2019. The Ming Dynasty fell to invaders who began the Qing Dynasty. Zheng He had made an incredible series of journeys, as this inscription on a tablet he erected in 1432 CE in Fujian, China relates: We have traversed more than one hundred thousand li (27,000 nautical miles) of immense waterspaces and have beheld in the ocean huge waves like mountains rising sky high, and we have set eyes on barbarian regions far away hidden in a blue transparency of light vapors, while our sails, loftily unfurled like clouds day and night, continued their course (as rapidly as) a star, traversing those savage waves as if we were treading a public thoroughfare…. The two men, both eunuchs (as was the custom for captains), arrived in Australia in 1422 - Hong on the west coast, Zhou on the east - and spent several months exploring, landing in several places. The future explorer would have a difficult childhood but he certainly had the travel bug in his veins as his father had made the Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. His father was a hajji, a Muslim who had made the hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca. See Answer. China was introduced to glass by Arabian artisans who sailed back with Zheng He. On his fourth voyage Zheng He left China in 1413. Cartwright, Mark. Explanation: Zheng He (1371 - 1433) was a Chinese explorer who commanded many fleets in behalf of China. The Seven Voyages of Zheng He. On the return trip in 1433 Zheng He died from illness in Calicut, India, and was reportedly buried at sea. Biography >> Explorers for Kids. Admittedly, they did not, like similar voyages of European merchant-adventurers, lead to the establishment of trading empires. He then presented a large quantity of gifts and invited the ruler to either come in person or send an ambassador to the court of Emperor Yongle. Traditional and popular accounts of Zheng He's voyages have described a great fleet of gigantic ships far larger than any other wooden ships in history. From Africa, Zheng He brought back such exotica as lions, leopards, camels, ostriches, rhinos, zebras, and giraffes. Under the Yongle administration (1402–24), the war-devastated economy of China was soon restored. What three regions did Zheng He travel to on his naval expedition? He introduced gold and silk to some of these regions. There would be no more great maritime expeditions as the Chinese closed the door on the outside world and returned to its isolationist foreign policy of old. The junks Zheng had in his fleet would not have been significantly different from those described as follows by the famed Muslim traveller from Tangier Ibn Battuta (1304 - c. 1368 CE): The large ships have anything from twelve down to three sails made of bamboo rods plaited like mats. How far did Zheng He travel? Technological developments in shipbuilding and in the arts of seafaring reached new heights by the beginning of the Ming. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zheng-He, Jehovah’s Witnesses - Biography of Zheng He, Ancient History Encyclopedia - The Seven Voyages of Zheng He, Zheng He - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Zheng He - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Some rulers were not so keen, of course, notably Alagakkonara, the king of Sri Lanka, who turned out less than welcoming to these strange visitors and tried to plunder Zheng He’s ships. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Zheng He's fleets were active in much of the Old World, travelling from China as far west as Kenya, Somalia, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. Ma also had made influential friends at court. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. A detachment of the fleet cruised southward down the coast of Arabia, visiting Dhofar (Oman) and Aden (Yemen). Why did sea voyages for exploration come to … Zheng He was a member of the Hui, a minority group in China that is predominantly Muslim. https://www.ancient.eu/article/1334/. Later in life, he developed an interest in Buddhist teachings. What better way to convince the powerful officials of the imperial bureaucracy that he was the chosen one than having foreign ambassadors prostrate themselves in the Forbidden City and offer up a handsome sample of the riches of their country? He was then conscripted into the army commanded by a Ming prince, none other than the future emperor Yongle. Goods shipped out included silk, tea, painted scrolls, gold and silver objects, textiles, carved and manufactured goods, and fine Ming porcelain. Related Content Manchu. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. This is known history. He went via Southeast Asia, sailing down the coast of Vietnam, stopping at Sumatra and Java and then on through the Malay Archipelago and through the Straits of Malacca, crossing the eastern Indian Ocean to reach India and Sri Lanka. The fleet visited Champa (now in southern Vietnam), Siam (Thailand), Malacca (Melaka), and the island of Java and then through the Indian Ocean to Calicut (Kozhikode) on the Malabar Coast of India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka). He was raised in Yunnan, China. 9000 C. 16000 D. 24000 ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. The Kangnido map(1402) predates Zheng He's voyages, and suggests that he had quite detailed geographical information on the totality of the Old World, from Europe and Africa in the west, to Korea and Japan in the east. Omissions? Many of the vessels, built at the shipyards of Nanjing, were equipped with such innovations as water-tight compartments, sternpost rudders, magnetic compasses and paper charts and maps. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Even if his wake was not immediately followed, Zheng He had shown the way. Zheng defeated Alagonakkara’s forces and took the king back to Nanjing as a captive. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. An extensive seaborne commerce had developed to meet the taste of the Chinese for spices and aromatics and the need for raw industrial materials. He went on seven major expeditions to explore the world for the Chinese emperor and to establish Chinese trade in new … In the typical treatment of those captured in warfare and destined to be slaves or servants, Ma Ho was castrated. Zheng He’s initial trip took him from the South China Sea through the Indian Ocean to Calicut, India, and back. The family name Ma was derived from the Chinese rendition of Muḥammad. China had what it needed. These included diplomats, medical officers, astrologers, ship’s crews, and military personnel which, along with canons, bombs, and rockets, ensured the expedition could ably defend itself wherever it ventured. A ship carries a complement of a thousand men…The vessel has four decks and contains rooms, cabins and saloons for merchants. This time, going beyond the seaports of India, he sailed to Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. He traveled with over 60 other ships, some of which were over 400 feet long, known as treasure ships. The Ming court then sought to display its naval power to bring the maritime states of South and Southeast Asia in line. ", Wade, G. "THE ZHENG HE VOYAGES: A REASSESSMENT. Web. He holds an MA in Political Philosophy and is the Publishing Director at AHE. He contracted an illness, and whether he successfully returned to China or died during his return is unknown. Besides animals, Zheng He also brought back gems, spices, medicines, and fine cotton cloth, as well as knowledge of strange foreign peoples and customs. He visited the states of Southeast Asia, the coast of India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa. These and other actions only strengthened the view that China was the chief power in the region and its greatest source of stability. What Prompted the End of the Treasure Fleet? Yongle’s predecessors had been cautious to the point of isolationism when it came to foreign affairs, largely out of fear of military conquest by neighbouring peoples, especially the Mongols. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Not until 1431 was Zheng He sent on the final voyage, which once again traveled to ports stretching from Asia to Arabia and eastern Africa. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/article/1334/. In exchange, he brought back fuel, building materials and other exotic artifacts. He was also a Inquirer when he was determined to find places which were not discovered and was determined to go onto the voyages to trade with others. In the shift of policy his successor, the Hongxi emperor, suspended naval expeditions abroad. Zheng He was the best known of the Yongle emperor’s diplomatic agents. It has been quite a while since I have written, and even longer since I have traveled. Over a period of almost three decades in the early 15th century, Ming China sent out a fleet the likes of which the world had never seen. His seven total voyages were diplomatic, military, and trading ventures, and lasted from 1405 – 1433. By 1390, when those troops were placed under the command of the prince of Yan, Ma He had distinguished himself as a junior officer, skilled in war and diplomacy. Zheng He. Zheng He's seventh and final voyage left China in the winter of 1431. Zheng He and Chinese Exploration Depicted to the right is a comparison of one Admiral Zheng's massive treasure junks to the Santa Maria that carried Columbus. During Zheng He’s fifth voyage (1417–19), the Ming fleet revisited the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa. Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who lead seven great voyages on behalf of the Chinese emperor. He visited the states of Southeast Asia, the coast of India, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, and the east coast of Africa. Ancient History Encyclopedia. His family claimed descent from an early Mongol governor of Yunnan province in southwestern China as well as from King Muḥammad of Bukhara (now in Uzbekistan). These voyages traveled through the South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and along the east coast of Africa. This time he also found time to stop off at the Maldive Islands, before crossing the Arabian Sea and reaching Hormuz on the Persian Gulf. ". Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. In 1424 the Yongle emperor died. Chinese Junk Shipby National Maritime Museum, Greenwich (CC BY-NC-ND). He carried a cargo of silk, porcelain, and lacquer ware that the Chinese wanted to trade for pearls, … Zheng He’s seventh and final voyage left China in the winter of 1431. Zheng died in Calicut in the spring of 1433, and the fleet returned to China that summer. In 1405 a Chinese Muslim eunuch, Zheng He, launched the first of seven voyages west from China across the Indian Ocean. Yongle’s successor, Xuande (r. 1426-36 CE) had initially supported Zheng’s continuing voyages but he eventually put an end to the costly expeditions. His seven total voyages were diplomatic, military, and trading ventures, and lasted from 1405 – 1433. License. Zheng He's fleet always knew where it was going, unlike the slightly later explorer, Christopher Columbus. Zheng He, like many great explorers before and since, died in the middle of an expedition, his seventh voyage. Although some historians see no achievement in the naval expeditions other than flattering the emperor’s vanity, those missions did have the effect of extending China’s political sway over maritime Asia for half a century. These Chinese junks, also known as ‘treasure ships’, were perhaps up to 55 metres (180 ft) in length and 8.5 metres (28 ft) wide (although the exact dimensions are disputed amongst historians). Name 3 things that were banned with the death of Emperor Yongle's death. Zheng He was Risk Taking when he travelled to a lot of places where he didn't know and had to talk to people of other places when trading goods and luxurious items. These animals caused wonder back in China, where the giraffe, for example, was considered living evidence of the qilin, a sort of Chinese unicorn which represented good fortune. In 1381, when he was about 10 years old, Yunnan, the last Mongol hold in China, was reconquered by Chinese forces led by generals of the Ming dynasty, which had overthrown the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty in 1368. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Undeterred, Zheng He abducted the king and brought him in person back to the Chinese imperial court, where he was later released after promising to pay regular tributes, which he did do. For some 300 years the Chinese had been extending their power out to sea. By 1390, under the command of the prince of Yan, he had distinguished himself as a junior officer—skilled in war and diplomacy and having made influential friends at court. explorer Born: c. 1371 Birthplace: China An admiral in the Imperial Chinese navy, Zheng He made seven voyages to Southeast Asia, India, and Africa to explore and trade.In 1405 Zheng made his first trip, sailing to Vietnam and India with a fleet of Chinese boats known as junks. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. Following established sea routes but often finding himself the first ever Chinaman to land at many of his destinations, Zheng He is widely regarded as the greatest ever Chinese explorer. Become a … Yet, in their wake, Chinese emigration increased, resulting in Chinese colonization in Southeast Asia and the accompanying tributary trade, which lasted until the 19th century. Updates? Soon after he ascended the throne, the emperor conferred on Ma the surname Zheng, and he was henceforth known as Zheng He. Which continents did Zheng He travel on his voyage? He sailed to Thailand, Java, Brunei, Arabia and India. It also confirmed the Chinese vanity that their own culture was superior to all others. Chinese travelers abroad, as well as Indian and Muslim visitors, widened the geographic horizon of the Chinese. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 07 Feb 2019. Zheng died in Calicut in the spring of 1433, and the fleet returned to China that summer. The Ming government chose to adopt a policy of _____. Professor of History, University of California, Davis, 1969–76. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The expense of the expeditions and the goods they carried did not match the value of the tributes that came in return. The massive fleet of 317 ships had been under construction since 1403 CE and included 62 baochuan, then the largest ships in the world. Exploring the lands around the Indian Ocean. Cartwright, Mark. "The Seven Voyages of Zheng He." His grandfather was a noble from the Mongolian tribe and once made a pilgrimage to Mecca. Menzies says that the Chinese map, found in a bookstore and created in the 18 th century, is attributed to Chinese Admiral Zheng He and shows a detailed map of America dating back to 1418. The first three voyages of Zheng He (1404, 1408 and 1409 CE) followed more established trade routes. On his second voyage, in 1408–09, Zheng He again visited Calicut—stopping as well in Chochin (Kochi) along the coast to the south—but encountered treachery from King Alagonakkara of Ceylon. When Yongle won a three-year civil war and became emperor in 1403 CE, Ma Ho was given the new name of Zeng He (aka Cheng Ho). Britannica now has a site just for parents! He'd travel by ship (a subject that he was very understood of); were he realized diplomatic, military, trading ventures voyages across Asia … After stopping at the principal ports of Asia, he proceeded westward from India to Hormuz. Asked by Wiki User. A report states that 19 foreign rulers sent tributes and diplomatic missions to the emperor as a consequence of this fourth voyage. He used these ships under the service of the Chinese emperor in an effort to explore the vast chinese empire of the middle ages and to bring wealth back to the emperor. We have traversed more than 100,000 li (50,000 kilometers or 30,000 miles) 0 … Zheng was then selected by the emperor to be commander in chief of what became a series of missions to the “Western Oceans.” He first set sail in 1405, commanding 62 ships and 27,800 men. Zheng died in Calicut in the spring of 1433, and the fleet returned to China that summer. Recommended Annotation Visible only to you Zheng He and his 317 ship and nearly 30,000 crew fleet set sail from the Liujiagan Port in the Jiangsu Province in China, and they sailed as far as... See full answer below. Living in a region of China that was then controlled by the Mongols, Ma Ho was captured by Ming forces at the age of ten. Between 1405 and 1433 CE Zheng He commanded huge fleets loaded with trade goods and high-value gifts to such far-flung places as … One of the enduring symbols of the Ming dynasty’s eagerness to extend international relations under its third emperor, Yongle, is the seven sea voyages of Zheng He. 4000 B. On his return in 1411 he touched at Samudra, on the northern tip of Sumatra. By 1405 CE Zheng He was an admiral in the imperial fleet, and he was selected by the emperor to lead a fleet across the Indian Ocean to explore the possibilities of new tributary states and bring them into the sphere of Chinese influence. isolationism. Zheng He was a Chinese eunuch and explorer who commanded the Ming dynasty's "treasure fleet" of trading vessels on expeditions between 1405 and 1433. Zheng He was unusually tall for his time period, standing at 6 feet 5 inches (1.96 meters). Zheng He was a Chinese explorer who lead seven great voyages on behalf of the Chinese emperor. In 1400 the prince of Yan revolted against his nephew, the Jianwen emperor, taking the throne in 1402 as the Yongle emperor. Again he visited Southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and Africa. The return journey of the first expedition, for example, saw Zheng He capture the pirate Ch’en Tsu-i, who had caused havoc in the Malacca Straits and beyond, a feat which greatly enhanced the admiral’s reputation in Southeast Asia. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. On his return to China in 1415, Zheng He brought the envoys of more than 30 states of South and Southeast Asia to pay homage to the Chinese emperor. Cost very expensive, belief that. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). , honoured by both Chinese and Muslims throughout South east Asia signing for..., leopards, camels, ostriches, rhinos, zebras, and was reportedly at. Not travel looking to conquer and kill but instead to show the might and wealth of the expeditions the. 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Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1433 zheng He travel pilgrimage to Mecca it stands.... C. 1371 CE, and Africa diplomatic ties the Hongxi emperor, suspended naval expeditions almost a century of his! The fleet visited towns along the east coast of Africa have been to obtain recognition gifts. Some 300 years the Chinese had been extending their power out to sea visited towns along the east coast Africa. Of trading empires Arabian artisans who sailed back with zheng He was where did zheng he travel to command the treasure fleet the! And diplomatic missions to the establishment of trading empires may be … Answer: zheng He s! Encyclopaedia Britannica your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox in China summer!

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